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Publications - Genetics Made Easy
Arab Genomic Studies
Cancers

Authors: Ghazi Omar Tadmouri, Pratibha Nair, Tasneem Obeid, and Shirine Gallala

Breast Cancer: Cancer involving the breast is the most common form of cancers in females around the world, affecting approximately one in every 12 women. Like other cancers, breast cancer arises when the cells of the breast lose control over their division and start to invade neighboring tissues. Unfortunately, breast cancer in its early stages is usually asymptomatic...

Cervical Cancer: The cervix is a narrow region at the lower end of the uterus, connecting the rest of the uterus to the vagina. The cervix is a dynamic structure that narrows and stretches throughout each menstrual cycle, and during childbirth stretches to its maximum of up to 10 cm. Malignant growth within the cervix, or cervical cancer, is regarded to be the second most common cancer seen among women, and is also the fifth leading cause of death among women due to cancer...

Colon Cancer: The colon is a part of the large intestine and measures 1.2 meters. The glands lining the inner wall of the colon are the sites for most abnormal cell behavior such as uncontrolled cell growth, which results in polyps (non-cancerous growths) and later on in adenocarcinomas or tumors. The tumors deprive the normal surrounding tissues of nutrients and oxygen and can spread to the lymph nodes in the area and to other organs...

Gastric Cancer: Gastric cancer, or cancer of the stomach, is the fourth most common cause of cancer worldwide, and is also the second most common cause of death caused by cancer. The World Health Organization estimates that stomach cancer is more common in developing than in developed countries. The reducing incidence of stomach cancer in developed countries has been attributed to lifestyle changes, including the intake of diets high in fruits and vegetables, the wide-spread use of refrigeration, and reducing the use of salt as a preservative...

Leukemia: Leukemia is a form of cancer that targets the blood. Blood contains different types of cells such as red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. The normal life cycle of these cells (formation, growth, function and death) is controlled in part by the bone marrow...

Lung Cancer: Lung cancer, characterized by uncontrolled growth of cells of the lung, is not only the most common cancer, but also the most common cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Initial symptoms of lung cancer may include shortness of breath, wheezing, chronic coughing, and/or coughing up of blood. Accumulation of fluid in the lung spaces and development of pneumonia is a further complication...

Thyroid Cancer: The thyroid, one of the largest endocrine glands of the human body, is a butterfly shaped structure located just under the Adam’s apple (a laryngeal prominence featuring at the human neck). Hormones produced by the thyroid gland, T3, T4, and calcitonin, are responsible for maintaining the body’s temperature, metabolic rate, heart rate, blood pressure, and weight. Worldwide incidence levels for thyroid cancer vary from very low in Europe (approx. 2 per 100,000) to the highest in the Hawaiian Chinese population (21 per 100,000)...

Other Cancers: Distribution of Other Cancer Types in Arab States; Basal Cell Carcinoma (Qatar), Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Egypt), Becker Nevus Syndrome (Saudi Arabia)...