Prostatic Hyperplasia, Benign

Alternative Names

  • BPH
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WHO-ICD-10 version:2010

Diseases of the genitourinary system

Diseases of male genital organs

OMIM Number


Mode of Inheritance

Autosomal dominant


Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a benign adenomatous enlargement of the periurethral prostate gland. The gland overgrowth and cellular accumulation could originate from epithelial and stromal proliferation, apoptosis or both. BPH results due to the occurrence of the stromal and epithelial elements of the prostate in the periurithral and transition regions of the gland. Meanwhile, the hyperplasia most probably occurs due to the overgrowth of the prostate which might limit the urine flow from the bladder.

Clinical symptoms include bladder outlet obstruction such as weak stream, hesitancy, frequent urination, urgency, nocturia, partial emptying, excess/urge incontinence, terminal dribbling, and total urinary retention. BPH is diagnosed through digital rectal examination, cystoscopy, transrectal ultrasonography, urinalysis and culture, prostate-specific antigen level, and urodynamics. In men, BPH is regarded as a natural part of the aging course and is dependent hormonally on the production of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). BPH arises only in males as females do not possess prostate glands; moreover it appears in 90% of men aged 85 years affecting the quality of their lives. Autopsy studies demonstrated that the prevalence of BPH increases from 8% in men aged 31 to 40 to 40-50% in men aged 51 to 60 years and to over 80% in men aged over 80 years. BPH is treated by 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (e.g., finasteride), alpha blockers (e.g., terazosin, alfuzosin, and tamsulosin) and corrective surgeries including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and transurethral incision (TUI).

Molecular Genetics

The etiology of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is still anonymous, however, it most likely occurs due to hormonal modifications correlated with aging.

Epidemiology in the Arab World

View Map
Subject IDCountrySexFamily HistoryParental ConsanguinityHPO TermsVariantZygosityMode of InheritanceReferenceRemarks
176807.G.2.2LebanonMale Benign prostatic hyperplasia... NM_000789.4:c.2306-105_2306-104insTTTTTTTTTTTGAGACGGAGTCTCGCTCTGTCGCCCATACAGTCACTTTTEl Ezzi et al. 2020 69 Lebanese patients...
600082.G.1.1Lebanon Benign prostatic hyperplasia... NM_000376.3:c.1056T>C, NM_000376.2:c.1024+283G>A, NM_000376.3:c.1025-49G>T, NM_000102.4:c.-34T>C, NM_000376.3:c.2T>GEl Ezzi et al. 2014 68 patients with BPH...

Other Reports


Mohan et al. (1995) demonstrated that benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was found to be the most widespread neoplasm affecting males, revealing that about 80% of men aged 40 years or older will possess several modifications of benign prostatic hyperplasia, and further on the illness of 70% of these patients will mature to bladder out flow obstruction.

[Mohan, M., Al Awadi, K. Diagnostic imaging in benign prostatic hyperplasia. Kuwait Med J. 1995; 27(2): 92-4.]


Kambal (1977) noted that prostatic obstruction is not uncommon among Africans and added that senile hypertrophy of the prostate is a common condition in Northern Sudan, while it is rare in the south. Kambal (1977) suggested that this difference in incidence is probably due to environmental rather than genetic factors.

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