Three M Syndrome 1

Alternative Names

  • 3M1
  • 3M Syndrome
  • Le Merrer Syndrome
  • Dolichospondylic Dysplasia
  • Gloomy Face Syndrome

Associated Genes

Cullin 7
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WHO-ICD-10 version:2010

Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities

Other congenital malformations

OMIM Number

273750

Mode of Inheritance

Autosomal recessive

Gene Map Locus

6p21.1

Description

3M syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that combines intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and postnatal growth retardation. Additionally, this syndrome is characterized by dysmorphic facial features (large head, dolichocephaly, frontal bossing, a triangular face, long philtrum and hypoplastic midface) and certain radiological abnormalities. The latter include slender long bones and ribs, foreshortened vertebral bodies, and small pelvis. The name of this disorder comes from the initials of the three researchers (Miller, McKusik, and Malvaux) who first identified it.

The characteristic radiologic findings of 3M syndrome are used to rule out similar disorders such as Silver-Russel syndrome (SRS), particularly the lack of limb length asymmetry that is present in over half of those with autosomal recessive SRS. The severity of symptoms and physical features varies considerably from case to case. Prenatal diagnosis is possible by ultrasonography. Supplying growth hormone to patients can help to increase body height.

Molecular Genetics

Mutations leading to 3M syndrome were mapped to the CUL7 gene. CUL7 is involved in chondrocyte growth and proliferation; therefore, CUL7 mutations can lead to reduced cell mitosis during the early gestation period and consequently retarded growth.

Epidemiology in the Arab World

View Map
Subject IDCountrySexFamily HistoryParental ConsanguinityHPO TermsVariantZygosityMode of InheritanceReferenceRemarks
273750.1.1JordanFemaleYesYes Intrauterine growth retardation; Short ... NM_001168370.2:c.203G>AHomozygousAutosomal, RecessiveAkawi et al. 2011
273750.1.2JordanMaleYesYes Short stature; Macrocephaly; Abnormal ... NM_001168370.2:c.203G>AHomozygousAutosomal, RecessiveAkawi et al. 2011 Sibling of 273750.1....
273750.1.3JordanMaleYesYes Short stature; Macrocephaly; Abnormal ... NM_001168370.2:c.203G>AHomozygousAutosomal, RecessiveAkawi et al. 2011 Sibling of 273750.1....
273750.1.4JordanFemaleYesYes Intrauterine growth retardation; Short ... NM_001168370.2:c.203G>AHomozygousAutosomal, RecessiveAkawi et al. 2011 Paternal first cousi...

Other Reports

Saudi Arabia

Al-Dosari et al. (2012) characterized a cohort of 14 patients 3M syndrome born to six consanguineous Saudi families (A-F). They identified three CUL7 mutations that resulted in a remarkably similar clinical phenotype in two sisters (4 and 2 years old, respectively) in family A, a 4-year-old girl and her 14-month-old brother born to healthy second-cousin Saudi parents in family B, and in four patients, including an 8-year-old boy, from family C. Despite their typical and easily discernible clinical phenotype, all these patients have been extensively investigated for alternative causes of their short stature and received erroneous diagnoses. Al-Dosari et al. (2012) emphasized that increased awareness about this syndrome among pediatricians and endocrinologists is needed to avoid a costly and unnecessary diagnostic odyssey.

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